Assessing English for Professional Purposes provides an account of the various kinds of language assessments used to determine people's abilities to function linguistically in the workplace. Through a sociological lens of risk and responsibility, this book: provides a detailed overview of both foundational and recent literature in the field; offers conceptual tools for specific purpose assessment; develops theory and practice in key areas, such as needs analysis, test development, validation and policy; broadens the scope of the assessment of English for professional purposes to include a range of assessment practices for both professionals and laypeople in professional settings.
The emergence of Modern Hebrew as a spoken language constitutes a unique event in modern history: a language which for generations only existed in the written mode underwent a process popularly called "revival", acquiring native speakers and becoming a language spoken for everyday use. Despite the attention it has drawn, this particular case of language-shift, which differs from the better-documented cases of creoles and mixed languages, has not been discussed within the framework of the literature on contact-induced change. The linguistic properties of the process have not been systematically studied, and the status of the emergent language as a (dis)continuous stage of its historical sources has not been evaluated in the context of other known cases of language shift.
A model of how to study language contact scientifically, Bilingualism in the Community highlights variation patterns in speech, using a new bilingual corpus of English and Spanish spontaneously produced by the same speakers. Putting forward quantitative diagnostics of grammatical similarity, it shows how bilinguals' two languages differ from each other, aligning with their respective monolingual benchmarks. The authors argue that grammatical change through contact is far from a foregone conclusion in bilingual communities, where speakers are adept at keeping their languages together, yet separate.
This book explores the experiences of Indigenous children and young adults around the world as they navigate the formal education system and wider society. Profiling a range of different communities and sociolinguistic contexts, this book examines the language ecologies of their local communities, schools and wider society and the approaches taken by these communities to maintain children's home languages.
This volume offers detailed and systematic analyses of scores of individual nouns across many different conceptual domains — ‘people’, ‘beings’, ‘creatures’, ‘places’, ‘things’, ‘living things’, and ‘parts of the body and parts of the person’. A range of languages, both familiar and unfamiliar, is examined. These include Australian Aboriginal languages (Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara), (Mandarin) Chinese, Danish, English, French, German, Koromu (a Papuan language), Russian, Polish, and Solega (a Dravidian language).
This volume explores the complex relationship between primary agreement by means of object marking or differential object marking (DOM), and secondary agreement through clitics in non-standardized variation data from Limeño Spanish contact varieties (LSCV).
This edited volume is the first dedicated to language contact in Australia since colonisation. It provides explanations for contemporary contact processes in Australia and descriptions of contact languages, including pidgins, creoles, mixed languages, contact varieties of English, and restructured Indigenous languages. Analyses of complex and dynamic processes are informed by sociolinguistic description.
Based on detailed multi-disciplinary analyses of more than 800 recorded handover interactions, audits of written handover documentation, interviews and survey responses, the contributing authors identify features of effective and ineffective clinical handovers in diverse hospital contexts. The authors then translate their descriptive findings into practical protocols, communication strategies and checklists that clinicians, managers and policy makers can apply to improve the safety and quality of clinical handovers.
The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics provides a survey of the field covering the methods which underpin current work; models of language change; and the importance of historical linguistics for other subfields of linguistics and other disciplines.
This book presents an analysis of Spanish prepositional clauses (< P + CP >) - complement and adverbial clauses. The goal is to examine the syntax and evolution of those clauses and their components in Spanish, contrasting them with other European languages.