Generally speaking, a bibliographic citation is a reference to a published or unpublished item, such as a book, journal article, pamphlet, DVD, sound recording, webpage, or other source of information. A citation contains the information required to identify these sources accurately and uniquely.
Bibliographic citations contain different content, dependant on the type of material they identify. For example:
The citation for a journal article includes:
The citation for a published book includes:
Note: Book citations may also include their unique ISBN (International Standard Book Number) or ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) identifiers.
The citation for a newspaper article includes:
The citation for a website includes:
The term ‘citation’ can also refer to an annotation in the body of an intellectual work which denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of that said same work.