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EndNote X7

Insert and edit citations

The following information relates to using EndNote in conjunction with Microsoft Office Word. However, correctly formatted EndNote citations and bibliographies can also be generated with other word processing applications. Please refer to the EndNote site for compatibility information.

Where EndNote tools are not available within the word processor, EndNote citations can still be formatted if the word processor is able to save documents in RTF file format. This is explained at the bottom of this page under the heading Other word processing programs.

In your Word document, place the insertion point where you want to insert a citation. Citations can be inserted in text or in footnotes. To insert a citation into a footnote you will need to create a footnote first by using the Insert Footnote function (Alt + Ctrl + F) on the Reference tab in Word (Mac: Insert menu in Word for Mac). More on this under the heading Insert footnotes into Word documents below.

There are two methods for inserting a citation:

Method 1

  1. Open your Endnote library and browse or search for the reference you wish to insert. Select any reference to be inserted.
  2. Select Insert Citation on the EndNote Library Window toolbar

OR

Return to your Word document and click on the Insert Citation drop-down menu and select Insert Selected Citation(s) (Mac: Insert citations button on the floating EndNote toolbar in word for Mac). EndNote inserts the citation, Cite While You Write technology formats it in your chosen bibliographic style and then adds it to the bibliography at the end of the document.

Method 2

  1. Select the Insert Citation icon on the EndNote tab in Word (Mac: select the magnifying glass button on the floating EndNote toolbar in Word for Mac). This opens the EndNote Find & Insert My References dialog.
  2. Enter the search terms (this could be a title, author or keyword) and select Find
  3. Once you have located and selected the reference(s) you wish to insert, click on Insert or use one of the drop-down menu options next to the Insert button.

Tip: Word inserts citations and the bibliography inside a field of your document. This usually displays on your screen with a grey background (grey background does not print). It is not possible to make lasting typing changes inside a field, as the contents of these fields is controlled by EndNote. Changes relating to your citations should therefore always be made within the reference in your EndNote library.

Insert multiple citations

To insert multiple citations:

  1. Hold the Ctrl key (on a Windows PC) or the command key (on a Mac) while selecting multiple references in your Endnote library

    OR

    Select the Insert Citation icon on the EndNote tab in Word (Mac: select the magnifying glass button on the floating EndNote toolbar in Word for Mac). This opens the EndNote Find & Insert My References dialog. Hold the Ctrl key (on a Windows PC) or the command key (on a Mac) while selecting multiple references
     
  2. Insert selected references as explained above under Method 1 or Method 2.

Insert footnotes into Word documents

To insert a citation into a footnote you will need to create a footnote first by using the Insert Footnote function on the Reference tab in Word (Mac: Insert menu in Word for Mac).

To insert a citation into a footnote of your Word document:

Find the citation and insert the same way you do your in-text citations. An entry will be added to the bibliography

Note: It is important to select a footnote style when you want to insert footnotes. To view and select a footnote style, select Output Styles and then Open Style Manager from the Edit menu in EndNote. The information on each style will indicate if it is a footnote style. One well-known footnote style is Chicago 16A. Many other styles will work in text and in footnotes (e.g. Harvard, APA).

Remove a citation

Removing a citation must be done from the Edit & Manage Citation(s) dialog in Word (Mac: use the Edit button on the floating EndNote toolbar in Word for Mac). To remove a citation:

  1. Find the citation to be removed in the preview panel at the top of the Edit & Manage Citation(s) dialog

    Tip: It helps to first mark the citation to be removed in the text
     
  2. Select Remove Citation from the Edit Reference drop-down and select OK to confirm and close the dialog box

Alternatively, you can use Convert Citations and Bibliography and Convert to Unformatted Citations. The appearance of your citations will change and you can safely delete them in the text. Afterwards, Update Citations and Bibliography as described in Create a single bibliography from multiple subdocuments.

Add page numbers to a citation

  1. In Word, place the insertion point anywhere inside the citation
    that requires page numbers to be shown
  2. On the EndNote tab in Word, select Edit & Manage Citation(s).
  3. Make the appropriate changes, as shown in the example on the right
  4. Select OK.

Important: If the page number does not appear in the citation, add it to the Suffix box instead. Some styles do not have page numbers included in their format. Using the Suffix will skirt the problem.

Alternatively, you can modify the Citations: Include Page Number
for the used style.

Exclude Author or Year

To exclude the Author or the Year from an in-text citation, or to effect other formatting alternatives, follow the instructions under Add page numbers to a citation above to access the Edit & Manage Citation(s) dialog. Chose the relevant option from the Formatting drop-down and select OK.

Unformat citations

Your existing references in Microsoft Office Word can be manually un-formatted by using the Convert to Unformatted Citations command under the Convert Citations and Bibliography drop-down in the Bibliography group of the EndNote tab in Microsoft Office Word (Mac: from the CWYW Tools drop-down on the floating EndNote toolbar in Word for Mac). The appearance of your citations will change and you can safely delete them in the text (using Microsoft Office Word tools like Delete, Backspace or Cut). Afterwards, select Update Citations and Bibliography (Mac: Format button on the floating EndNote toolbar in Word for Mac).

You may choose to work with citations unformatted the whole time. Advantages of working with unformatted citations include:

  • Deleting and editing citations is easy and just a matter of making changes in Word

Tip: Prefixes, suffixes and page numbers can be typed inside the unformatted citation in your word processor, as in this example: {see also \Einstein, #2380, p 56}

  • Unformat / update can be executed frequently to check formatting. This process will have to be used when combining chapters at the end of your project to generate a single reference list at the end of your combined chapters. More on this under the heading Create a single bibliography from multiple subdocuments.

Other word processing programs

Where EndNote tools are not available from the word processing program while you write, correctly formatted EndNote citations and a bibliography can still be generated if the word processor is able to save files in RTF format.

Use the following procedure.

  1. In your EndNote library select the references required for a citation (Ctrl + left mouse click to select multiple references, Command + left mouse click on a Mac)
  2. Select Edit, then Copy (or Ctrl + C, Command + C on a Mac)
  3. Paste the selection to the required location in your word document. The reference(s) will appear unformatted, e.g. {Einstein, #2380}

    Tip: It is also possible to ‘drag and drop’ references from your EndNote library to the required location in your text document.
     
  4. When you are ready to format your citations, Save your file in RTF format
  5. In EndNote, select Tools, then Format Paper and Format Paper
  6. Navigate to the RTF file from (4) above and select Open
  7. Select the Output style you require and enter the name for the formatted paper.

    Note: EndNote suggests a file name where the output style name has been added to the RTF file name (e.g. MyLibrary_Harvard).
     
  8. Select Save
  9. You can now open the EndNote formatted RTF file with your word processor. Use the unformatted RTF file as the master file to continue writing.

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