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EndNote X7

Use bibliographic styles

EndNote enables the application of different reference styles to the citations and bibliography used in a Word document. Reformatting a Word document for a different publication is easy.

What are styles?

  • Styles are instructions about how information in references are combined and formatted to create citations, footnotes and a bibliography
  • EndNote styles can be modified.
  • EndNote styles include styles that support citations in text, in footnotes and in endnotes (‘footnotes’ at the end of a document).
  • The use of a particular bibliographic style is required by publishers for submitted articles. You are also required to use bibliographic styles when submitting a thesis and other assignments.

Select and preview styles

  1. Go to the Edit menu and select Output Styles. Select Open Style Manager
  2. At this point you will have two options:
    • you can select a style title from the alphabetical list (only useful if you already know the name of the style you wish to use) or
    • you can use the Find by button to view styles that are appropriate for a particular discipline. This includes styles for journals in those disciplines. There are also some generic styles
  3. Choose the style you wish to apply by checking the box to the left of it.
    • To see more details on a style select the style, and select Style Info/Preview (at thebottom of the screen). You will now be able to toggle between information on the style and a preview of how references in a bibliography will be formatted using that style
    • Styles that have been ticked will now be available in the Style drop-down on the EndNote ribbon in Word and from the Library Window toolbar in EndNote

Tip: Different reference styles can also be applied directly from this Style drop-down menu. If the required style is not available immediately it can be found by selecting the Select Another Styleoption from the drop-down menu.

Download style files

University installations of Endnote should contain all the required citation styles. If you require additional styles, the ANU Online EndNote site contains a great number of them. 

Other style files can be located from various sources, including the EndNote website. If possible, save the new style file to the appropriate Endnote directory in C:\Program Files\EndNote\Styles (Windows) or Applications/EndNote/Styles (Mac).

Check folder locations

By default EndNote should look to the correct folders when choosing style files. However, as this may have been changed on shared machines, it is worthwhile checking the location before you begin. Also, if you have made changes to Styles or saved them onto a disk or a shared drive, you may need to tell EndNote where to look for these files.To do this:

  1. Select Preferences from the Edit menu.
  2. Choose Folder Locations from the list on left and modify as necessary.

Modify a style

Reference styles in EndNote can be customised. It is advisable to refer to the relevant style manual in order to determine if any intended changes are permissible.

Never modify an original reference style in EndNote. If changes of a style are necessary, it is advisable to make these in a copy of the style. This is a backup strategy in the event of something going wrong and you need to revert to the original style.

To create a copy of a style

  1. from the Edit menu in EndNote, select Output Styles, and then Open Style Manager
  2. Double-click on the style you wish to base your changes on
  3. Select File, and then Save As
  4. Give your style a new name and, if possible, save it to the appropriate EndNote directory in C:\Program Files\EndNote\Styles (Windows) or Applications/EndNote/Styles (Mac)

On the same dialog, you are able to change how your citations, bibliography and footnotes appear in your Word document, by editing the style template. The EndNote style template now shows the record fields which are used to compose citations, bibliography and footnotes in that style in your Word document.

Select Citations > Templates, Bibliography > Templates or Footnotes > Templates as required and place the insertion point where changes are to be made.

  • Use the Insert Field button to add the content of any record field
  • Change any text formatting by using the formatting options available from the top of the window.

Other options are available from the ‘Field Substitutions’, ‘Layout’, ‘Sort Order’, etc. menu.

For more information, specifically on how to use Forced Separation and Link Adjacent Text markers, refer to these instructions.

Compile a new reference type

The fields for reference types not shown can be compiled, as follows.

  1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then Open Style Manager
  2. Double-click on the style you wish to base your changes on.

The EndNote style template now shows the record fields which are used to compose citations, bibliography and footnotes in that style in your Word document.

Select Bibliography followed by Templates or Footnotes and then Templates as required. Simply click on the Reference Types button to add the reference type needed to the list, then use the Insert Fieldbutton to add the fields you will be using with this reference type. As you compile the fields for the reference type, type any punctuation as required.

For more information, specifically on how to use ‘Forced Separation’ and ‘Link Adjacent Text’ markers, refer to these instructions.

Other changes

Citations: Include Page Number

When using Cite While You Write tools in Word, it is possible to add page numbers to in-text citations from the Edit & Manage Citation(s) dialog, as in these examples: (Harris, 1998:56) or (Harris, 1998, p. 56). Depending on the reference style used, it may be necessary to modify the style to enable this, as follows.

From the Edit menu in EndNote

  1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, then Open Style Manager
  2. Double-click on the style you wish to base your changes on
  3. Select Citations, and then Templates
  4. Place the insertion point in the position where you will add the additional field
  5. Click on Insert Field and select Cited Pages
  6. Save your changes

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Bibliography: sort order

You can change the sort order for the bibliography. This is especially useful if you need to create a complex bibliography.

Bibliography: title capitalisation

This allows you to leave capitalization as it has been added to the record, or to have it determined by the style settings.

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