An important principle of science is that experiments or studies should be reproducible by someone working independently. In order for this to occur, data that is the basis of research findings must be available. Explicit statements of data deposit requirements from some major scientific journals are included below to illustrate this expectation.
Dryad is an international repository of data underlying peer-reviewed articles in the basic and applied biosciences. Dryad enables scientists to validate published findings, explore new analysis methodologies, repurpose data for research questions unanticipated by the original authors, and perform synthetic studies. Dryad is governed by a consortium of journals that collaboratively promote data archiving and ensure the sustainability of the repository.
A selection of journals that require the deposit of data underlying peer-reviewed articles is included below.
The Data and material sharing, database deposit and electronic supplementary material section of Preparing Your Articles states, "To allow others to verify and build on the work published in Royal Society journals it is a condition of publication that authors make available the data and research materials supporting the results in the article.
Datasets should be deposited in an appropriate, recognized repository and the associated accession number, link or DOI to the datasets must be included in the methods section of the article. Reference(s) to datasets should also be included in the reference list of the article with DOIs (where available). Where no discipline-specific data repository exists authors should deposit their datasets in a general repository such as Dryad (http://datadryad.org/)."
"A condition of publication in a Nature journal is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without undue qualifications.
Data sets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to editors and peer-reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript."
Nature includes examples of appropriate public data repositories.
PLoS Editorial and Publishing Policy states, "PLOS is committed to ensuring the availability of data and materials that underpin any articles published in PLOS journals. PLOS's ideal is to make all data relevant to a given article and all readily replaceable materials immediately available without restrictions (while not compromising confidentiality in the context of human-subject research)."
"...authors must comply with current best practice in their discipline for the sharing of data through databases...Where no field-specific database exists, authors can deposit data in Dryad."
PNAS Information for Authors states "To allow others to replicate and build on work published in PNAS, authors must make materials, data, and associated protocols available to readers."
"Before publication, authors must deposit large datasets (including microarray data, protein or nucleic acid sequences, and atomic coordinates for macromolecular structures) in an approved database and provide an accession number for inclusion in the published paper. When no public repository exists, authors must provide the data as SI online or, in special circumstances when this is not possible, on the author's institutional Web site, provided that a copy of the data is provided to PNAS."
"All data necessary to understand, assess, and extend the conclusions of the manuscript must be available to any reader of Science. Science supports the efforts of databases that aggregate published data for the use of the scientific community" and provides a list of approved databases in the Data and Materials Availability section of the General Information for Authors.
The National Academies Press (NAP) was created by the National Academies to publish the reports issued by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, all operating under a charter granted by the Congress of the United States.
In 2003, the NAP published a landmark book that is available in full text online entitled Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials: Responsibilities of Authorship in the Life Sciences.